Cognitive strategies, such as summarizing or reasoning deductively, allow In conclusion, personality traits can have a direct and indirect impact on learning and their role as predictors of our students’ learning should not be discounted. Based on the extensive research on learning strategies (Challot - O'Malley 1994 Rubin) successful second language learners use some common learning strategies effectively. Direct strategies, known as learning the target language directly, include cognitive strategies, memory strategies, and compensation strategies. The results related to the indirect effect between variables showed that reading enjoyment had a partial mediator effect for the control strategy and had a full mediating effect for elaboration. ABSTRACT: In “Language Learning Styles and Strategies,” the author synthesizes research from various parts of the world on two key variables affecting language learning: styles, i.e., the general approaches to learning a language; and strategies, the specific behaviors or thoughts learners use to enhance their language learning. The direct and indirect strategies of communication strategy will be discussed in this section. The high school second language learner has much in common with the "good" language learners described by … Indirect guidance refers to strategies that are used in establishing a positive classroom environment including room arrangement, consistent routines, class rules, and developmental activities. However, their impact cannot be considered in isolation, as divorced from motivation and the cognitive and cognitive-oriented factors identified at the outset of my discussion. Direct strategies include memorizing, analyzing, reasoning and guessing intelligently. These two strategies are the ways of argument which influences explicit communication, it can be easily indicated by the individualistic-collectivism of Hofstede (1980) and high- or low- context of Hall (1976). learning strategies based on the synthesis of the previous work on good language learning strategies and her classification is “the most comprehensive classification of learning strategies” (Ellis, 1994, p. 539). Do not use if students already have a grasp of lower-level learning concepts of the topic. When not to use: When objectives other than learning facts, rules, or behavior sequences are desired, direct instruction would be less efficient than inquiry or problem-solving strategies. Activities to support the strategy Activity 1: exploring authentic texts. Oxford (1990a) draws a distinction between direct and indirect strategies. Direct strategies are the strategies used directly in dealing with a new language, and there are three groups that belong to the direct strategies: memory, cognitive, and compensation. 2 indirect and direct guidance techniques will provide you with strategies and tools to use in preventing, resolving, and correcting behaviors. Direct instruction relates more to lower levels of Bloom’s taxonomy. Implications for Research and Practice: Teachers are encouraged to use deep learning strategies instead of surface learning strategies. Oxford (1990) divided vocabulary-learning strategies into two categories: Direct and indirect. These are specific procedures that learners can use to improve their language skills. Students examine texts they are currently studying and identify and then replace direct for indirect and vice versa. It is vital in the development of reading comprehension and provides the link between spoken like language and the more formal written language. 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