and included the 11th and 13th dynasty. Senusret I was succeeded by Amenemhat II (c. 1929-1895 BCE) who may have ruled jointly with him. The Chou people, unaware of high civilizations in the West, believed their empire occupied the middle … The Middle Kingdom of Egypt (also known as The Period of Reunification) is the period in the history of ancient Egypt between about 2000 BC and 1700 BC, stretching from the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Twelfth Dynasty, although some writers include the Thirteenth and Fourteenth dynasties in the Second Intermediate Period. The Old Kingdom (2649-2150 BC) - The Time of Pyramid Building. Margaret Bunson writes: The era that began with the fall of Herakleopolis to Mentuhotep II was an era of great artistic gains and stability in Egypt. The 13th Dynasty would inherit the wealth and the policies but would not be able to make any great use of them. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. Van de Mieroop writes: The 12th Dynasty kings at Itj-tawi were powerful but they were not alone in possessing wealth and social standing. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Learn vocabulary egypt middle kingdom with free interactive flashcards. As van de Mieroop notes, "All but the last two rulers of the 12th Dynasty built pyramids and mortuary complexes in the surroundings and filled them with royal statuary, relief sculptures, and the like" (102). Many of the biographies inscribed tell the story of a former nomarch who became a royal administrator devoted to the king. Scholars remain divided on which dynasties constitute the Middle Kingdom of Egypt with some arguing for the later half of the 11th through the 12th, some the 12th to 14th, and some the 12th and 13th. (101). The influence of many different districts of the country is seen in the architecture, written works, inscriptions, paintings, and tombs of the 12th Dynasty clearly indicating that regional influences were welcomed and respected and that artistic expression was more fluid at this time. Some kings are only mentioned in the Turin King's list and nowhere else, some are named in inscriptions but not in lists. United under King Menes . Home. There seems to have been significant unrest at the court toward the end of his reign, and evidence suggests he was assassinated. See more. An inscription carved during the reign of Wanka Intef II shows that he was the first of this dynasty to claim to rule over the whole of Egypt, a claim which brought the Thebeans into conflict with the rulers of Herakle… The kings of Memphis moved their capital to Herakleopolis, perhaps in an effort to gain more control over the larger population there, but remained as ineffectual as they had been in the old city. During the time of the Old Kingdom, pharaohs were buried in pyramids. Mentuhotep I (c. 2115 BCE) followed Intef I's lead and conquered the surrounding nomes for Thebes, greatly enhancing its stature and increasing the city's power. The Execration Texts were clay objects, sometimes statues, with the names of one's enemies written on them and a verse one would recite before smashing the object. Once the process of unification was underway, Mentuhotep II turned his attention to governing, military feats, and building projects. Sahura 3. middle Kingdom Egypt Definition. Coined c. 1840 as part of a periodization of Ancient Egyptian history into Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms. Included the 3rd to the 6th dynasties . The exact location of the city is unknown but was probably near Lisht and was referred to in documents simply as the 'Residence.' During this time, the dominant religion of Egypt was the cult of Osiris. by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin (CC BY-NC-SA), Political & social changes from the First Intermediate Period are most clearly seen in the art & literature of the 12th Dynasty, which gives the Middle Kingdom its epithet of 'Classical Age. This interpretation is supported by the institution of larger districts under the control of the central government. Most likely Hyksos rule covered the area from Middle Egypt to southern Palestine. Later Egyptian writers would contrast the Middle Kingdom with the supposed lawlessness which preceded and succeeded it and raise it to the status of a golden age. Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2020, Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition Second, an unexpected rainstorm fell upon the party which, once it had passed, revealed a well large enough to water the entire party. The royal tombs are moved to the north near the city of Memphis. Click on the thumbnails below to learn more about the dynasties of the Middle Kingdom: 11th Dynasty (2134-1991) 12th Dynasty (1991-1783) The tenth dynasty ruled Lower Egypt in the North and the eleventh one ruled southern Egypt. During the First Intermediate Period, these nomarchs who now had the power to control their own districts without regard for Memphis essentially became kings of their regions. The Middle Kingdom was a golden age for ancient Egypt, when arts, religion, and literature flourished. Last modified October 04, 2016. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2020) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. New and greater tombs were built and grander palaces until, with the ascension of Mentuhotep II and the defeat of Herakleopolis, Thebes became the capital of Egypt. From the middle of the 6th cent. Teamwork . Middle Kingdom of Egypt Timeline (c. 2055-1700 B.C.) Scholars Bob Brier and Hoyt Hobbs write of the Middle Kingdom: During its flowering, the Egyptian language attained a level of refinement that ever after made it the model for good prose in ancient Egypt. The works of the Old Kingdom were commissioned and controlled by the royalty and are uniform in appearance and style, while those of the Middle Kingdom are much more varied. The individual families who had held the position do not seem to have lost their status, however, as the tombs at Beni Hassan mentioned earlier attest. They were moved inside the Museum of Memphis, and depicted the king standing in the attitude of the march, wearing the Hedjet, the white crown of Upper Egypt… Ancient Egypt is comprised of three different kingdoms; The Old Kingdom, The Middle Kingdom, and The New Kingdom. Temple building, following the great mortuary complex of Mentuhotep II at Thebes, worked to create a seamless relationship between the structure and the surrounding landscape which resulted in almost every temple built in the 12th Dynasty mirroring Mentuhotep II's to greater or lesser degrees. His entire seven-year reign is silence, but he most likely continued the policies of his predecessors successfully because when Amenemhat succeeds him as king the country is flourishing. Web. The Middle Kingdom (2040-1782 BCE) is considered ancient Egypt's Classical Age during which the culture produced some of its greatest works of art and literature. However one names him, his birth name, Mentuhotep, means "The God Montu is Content". It is interesting to note that, under Senusret II's reign especially, the local officials prospered just as they had toward the end of the Old Kingdom and yet this did not cause the problems for the crown which it had before. Middle Kingdom of Egypt. It lasted from 1975 BC to 1640 BC. Rock-Cut Tombs of the Middle KingdomLocation, Plans, and Political Power.One indication of the central government's control over its officials in ancient Egypt was the location and plan of official's tombs. Artistic expression, although still employed for the glory of the king or the gods, found new subject matter during the Middle Kingdom. After toppling the last rulers of the Tenth Dynasty, Mentuhotep II began consolidating his power over all Egypt, completing the process circa … 2686 to 2181 B.C.E, . Mentuhotep II Headby Mark Cartwright (CC BY-NC-SA). Mark The Middle Kingdom (c. 2000-1650 BCE) was marked by the reunification of Egypt following a period of weak pharaonic power and civil war called the First Intermediate. Wahankh Intef II further strengthened the position of Thebes by ruling justly and commanding military expeditions against Herakleopolis, which weakened the Memphite king's hold on their region. This temple was dedicated to Amun, Lord of the Sky and Earth, who would become known as Amun-Ra, King of the Gods of Egypt. The 12th Dynasty is often cited as the beginning because of the vast improvement in the quality of art and architecture but these developments were only possible because of the stability the 11th Dynasty secured for the country. 1630 bce) and the Second Intermediate period (c. 1630–1540 bce): Mentuhotep II campaigned in Lower Nubia, where he may have been preceded by the Inyotefs. The "Middle Kingdom" is a period of time during the history of Ancient Egypt. Under … The writer goes to great lengths to make sure the reality of such a loss is keenly experienced by the reader. Although the Ipuwer Papyrus has been interpreted as history concerning the First Intermediate Period it is actually literature expressing the common human experience of a yearning for a golden age, a time when everything was beautiful, as contrasted to a present of uncertainty and fear. So much for Egyptology being consistent, but never fear, they are all talking about the same king, and they all place his rule as the first of the Middle Kingdom and within the 11th Dynasty. Start studying Middle Kingdom Egypt. The Old, Middle and New Kingdoms were each followed by an intermediate periods. Moyen Empire égyptien. Ancient Egypt's Old Kingdom Period. dle / ˈmidl/ • adj. Senusret I began these policies by draining the lake at the center of the Fayyum through the use of canals. It was not just a problem of what it cost to build the pyramid complexes but also a matter of maintaining them. At times when the central government exercised strong control over the provinces, officials wanted to be buried near the king. Older scholarship believed, due to the distribution of Hyksos goods with the names of Hyksos rulers in places such as Baghdad and Knossos , that Hyksos had ruled a vast empire, however it seems more likely to have been the result of diplomatic gift exchange and far-flung trade networks. The claim that the dynasty lasted for 150 years after Sobekhotep I is also probably wrong in that the Hyksos were firmly established as a power in Lower Egypt by c. 1720 BCE and were in control of that region by c. 1782 BCE. These changes from the First Intermediate Period are most clearly seen in the art and literature of the 12th Dynasty, which gives the Middle Kingdom its epithet of 'Classical Age.' Although the king was again the ruler of all Egypt, subordinate officials often lived and acted like small kings and there was an ease in upward mobility in the society which had not existed before. The Old Kingdom's government served as a base for the The 13th Dynasty seems to have continued the policies of the kings of the 12th and kept the country unified but, as far as the fragmentary records indicate, none of them had the personal strength of the previous kings. add example. Middle Kingdom of Egypt in English translation and definition "Middle Kingdom of Egypt", Dictionary English-English online. Mentuhotep was praised as a "second Menes" in reference to the first king of the Early Dynastic Period in Egypt (c. 3150-2613 BCE) who initially united the country. This situation, combined with others of the time, brought about the end of the Old Kingdom. Even though the Middle Kingdom may not have the grand pyramids of Egypt's past or the power which lay in the future, the contributions made by this era contributed enormously to the definition of Egyptian culture as it is recognized in the present day. (3). It lasted from 2055-1650 B.C.E. Abydos developed into a wealthy city during this time, the most popular place of pilgrimage in all of Egypt, with the most coveted necropolis. According to every estimation of the Middle Kingdom, Egypt reached its highest point of culture during the 12th Dynasty, and the innovations of this period influenced the rest of Egypt's history. The Hyksos, although they were foreigners, continued to respect the religion and culture of Egypt and seem to have benefited the country more than later historians give them credit for. The 13th Dynasty is traditionally seen as weaker than the 12th, and it was, but exactly when it began to decline is unclear because the historical records are fragmentary. Much of our fascination with Middle Kingdom Egypt lies in the dramatic shift in the art that occurred in the Classical Age, especially during the reigns of Senwosret II, Senwosret III, and Amenemhat III. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. A protagonist is the main character of a story, or the lead. Egypt splits back into two countries. As more money went to the districts from the capital at Memphis, those districts naturally increased in wealth, and with the rise in popularity of the Cult of the Sun God Ra, the priests gained more wealth and power. The most commonly accepted dates for the Middle Kingdom, then, are 2040-1782 BCE, which include the latter part of the 11th Dynasty through the middle of the 13th Dynasty. Amenemhat III boasted of no great military victories but built almost as many monuments as his father and was responsible for the great mortuary temple at Hawara known as 'The Labyrinth,' which Herodotus claimed was more impressive than any of the ancient wonders of the world. The debate over the historicity of Nitocris has been going on for decades and is no closer to a resolution but many scholars (Toby Wilkinson and Barbara Watterson among them) now accept her as an actual person rather than a myth Herodotus created. Tale of Sinuhe (Berlin 10499)by L. Baylis (Copyright). Aaru: Definition of Aaru goes here.. Akh: Amarna Period: Duat: Definition of Duat goes here.. Dynasty: Definition of Dynasty goes here. (78-79). In simplistic terms we can point to the pyramids as the Old Kingdom's defining characteristic and at the empire for the New Kingdom; no comparable single feature describes the Middle Kingdom. Mentuhotep II restored stability in 2041 BCE after launching an attack that met with little resistance. Middle Kingdom of Egypt . He also led an expedition into Palestine and afterwards increased trade relations with that region. All of these improvements made Egypt one of the wealthiest and most stable countries in the world at the time. His mortuary complex in Thebes contained some of the earliest known depictions of Amon-Re, the dynastic god of the Middle Kingdom and the New Kingdom. (78). The fear of loss evident in the texts of the Middle Kingdom was realized with the dissolution of the 13th Dynasty and the coming of another period of disunity and uncertainty. WikiMatrix. There was a period with 3 dynasties during which the king of Egypt became an absolute ruler not only over citizens but over religion as well.There came the period of Old Kingdom: 2700-2200BC. Senusret III is considered the model for the legend of Sesostris, the great Egyptian Pharaoh who, according to Herodotus, campaigned in and colonized Europe and, according to Diodorus Siculus, conquered the entire known world. Ennead: Hall Of Judgment/Hall of Justicet: Hatshepsut: Lower Egypt: Middle Kingdom: Necropolis: Nefertari Merytnmut: “Age of Pyramids” . Egypt also mounted serious military expeditions into the Sudan, forays that would later extend throughout the Middle East. Meaning of New Kingdom of Egypt. Within each Kingdom there were multiple dynasties conquered, and in the separate time periods were ruled by a variety of leaders. Old kingdom definition, the period in the history of ancient Egypt, 2780–2280 b.c., comprising the 3rd to 6th dynasties, characterized by the predominance of Memphis. Old kingdom definition, the period in the history of ancient Egypt, 2780–2280 b.c., comprising the 3rd to 6th dynasties, characterized by the predominance of Memphis. This began the Middle Kingdom and a new period of stability, which lasted from 2055 to 1650 B.C.E. At the same time, Amun's Temple at Karnak was continually being added to. It was a period of transformation. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. 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